According to estimates commissioned in 2008 by the National Security Council of Turkey (Milli Güvenlik Kurulu) some 2,000,000 Turkish citizens are of Bosniak ancestry as mainly descended from Bosniak emigrants in the 19th and early 20th century.
Although Montenegro's Slavic Muslims form one ethnic community with a shared culture and history, this community is divided on whether to register as Bosniaks (i.e.
adopt Bosniak national identity) or as Muslims by nationality.
Ethnic cleansing and genocide during the Bosnian War (1991–95) have had an effect on the territorial distribution of the population.
Partly due to this,) as a polity first appears in the 10th century.
Some may point to an Islamic heritage, while others stress the purely secular and national character of the Bosniak identity and its connection with Bosnian territory and history.